# How to Read a Standard R Table

Many Standard R outputs contain a default output which is a table, similar to the two below.

## Coefficient tables

Statistical models that estimate coefficients are often represented in Standard R with a table such as the one below. Key aspects of this table are:

- The estimated parameters, which are referred to as
`Estimate`s in the example below, are color-coded where the corresponding*p*-value is less than 0.05. If the coefficient is positive they are colored blue. If negative, they are colored red. - The
*t*or*z*-statistics are colored from coral (a pink color) through to blue, where:- Values less than -5 are shown in the strong coral (e.g., as shown in the
`sleepy`row below. - Values of 0 are shown with white background.
- Values of 5 or more are shown in blue.
- Values between -5 and 5 are interpolated based on the
*z*and*t*statistics.

- Values less than -5 are shown in the strong coral (e.g., as shown in the
*p-*Values are shown in the column marked*p*. They are bold where*p*is less than 0.05.

## Tables of means

The table below shows means by group, where the rows represent variables, and the initial columns represent different sub-groups in the population. As with the *Coefficient tables*, the shading is determined by the *t*-statistics (computed as differences from the row means). However, whereas in the table above the *t*-statistics themselves were shaded, in this example the means are shaded according to the *t*-statistics, and the *t*-statistics themselves are not displayed. See Classifier - Linear Discriminant Analysis for a more detailed discussion of this example.

## Acknowledgements

The formatting of the table is primarily via the `formattable` (Ren and Russell 2016) package, with some assistance from `rmarkdown` (Allaire et al. 2016), `htmltools` (RStudio Inc. 2016)) and `htmlwidgets` (Vaidyanathan et al. 2016).

## References

JJ Allaire, Joe Cheng, Yihui Xie, Jonathan McPherson, Winston Chang, Jeff Allen, Hadley Wickham, Aron Atkins and Rob Hyndman (2016). rmarkdown: Dynamic Documents for R. R package version 0.9.6. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rmarkdown

Ramnath Vaidyanathan, Yihui Xie, JJ Allaire, Joe Cheng and Kenton Russell (2016). htmlwidgets: HTML Widgets for R. R package version 0.6. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=htmlwidgets

Kun Ren and Kenton Russell (2016). formattable: Create 'Formattable' Data Structures. R package version 0.2.0.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=formattable

RStudio Inc. (2016). htmltools: Tools for HTML. R package version 0.3.5. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=htmltools